If you’ve written some C/C++ code, or you are familiar with *nix systems, you’ve probably heard about
Makefile is a file that contains some commands for use with the
GNU make build automation system. A typical use would be
$ ./configure && make && make install
However, the usage of
Makefile is not limited to just build automation. You can actually use
Makefile for many kinds of task automation. Now I’ll show you some simple and common use cases for using
Makefile for task automation.
Example 1 - Django project
Imagine you have a Django project in development, you know that each Django project has a powerful
manage.py file which you can call to execute some useful commands. You can use it to run a server, create a super user, etc. However, typing
python manage.py with all those arguments takes time. Instead, you can just create a Makefile for easier task execution.
all: local local: python manage.py runserver external: python manage.py runserver 18.104.22.168:9999 super: python manage.py createsuperuser migrate: python manage.py makemigrations python manage.py migrate
Makefile, you can just type
make to run a server on your development machine, and use
make external to listen to certain IP and port.
Example 2 - Hugo blog
As you may realize, this blog is maintained by the
Hugo static website generator. There are several commands which need to be frequently executed. For example, running a test server, generating the website, and publish the updated website to GitHub. I used to have a
bash script for each of these purposes. Therefore, I have 3 bash scripts lying in the directory and I have to execute them like this every time
It works, of course. However, I want a more elegant way of doing all these tasks. Therefore, I wrote a
Makefile for it.
all: build build: hugo --theme=blackburn test: hugo server --bind=127.0.0.1 --baseUrl="localhost" --theme=blackburn --buildDrafts publish: cp -r public/* ../koallen.github.io cd ../koallen.github.io && \ git pull && \ git add --all && \ git commit -m "update blog content" && \ git push origin master
Now I can build my blog with
make, and publish it to GitHub with
make publish. Instead of 3 scripts, I just have one
Makefile. Everything looks much cleaner now.
Some things to notice
First, please notice that the commands in
Makefile are indented with tabs, not white spaces (white spaces are used in this post). If you write your own
Makefile, make sure tab is used.
Second, each command in
Makefile is executed in a separate subprocess. Therefore, if you want to switch to another directory and execute some commands there, you should concatenate them with
&&. If you want to write them in multiple lines, end the lines (except the last one) with
\ (refer to my
Makefile for the second example).